WBA Photos

North American Plants

Photos: Alphabetical by genus and species name

*Denotes species and State of origin for sample(s) with
antitumor activity.  Click on the genus name to view plant photos, or
click on the species name (epithet) to see historical data on
recollections of active plants for cancer research.

AC (below)             DK               LQ               RZ

The World Botanical Associates Web Page
Prepared by Richard W. Spjut
Bakersfield, California 93380-1145
First prepared in April 2004
Last updated August 2015

Mammillaria hutchinsoniana
Pacific Coast of Baja California
Mesa above Punta San Carlos
Appears to have germinated inside a rock, the
rock having split open with the gape widening
as the cactus continues to grow inside the rock.
Photo by Richard Spjut, March 1996

Richard Spjut in the Trinity Alps Wilderness
Sawtooth Ridge, and view of Emerald Lake

(1) Lower Canyon Creek Lake looking towards Thompson Peak. (2) Looking down on Canyon
Creek Lakes from just below Thompson Peak. (3) Thompson Peak, the highest point
in the Trinity Alps. (4 & 5) Grizzly Falls at Grizzly Lake. (6) Grizzly Creek.

 

 

     Photos and procurement data on samples collected for antitumor activity are linked to WBA web pages and/or to WBA files in Adobe Acrobat format by the genus and species names that are highlighted in the table that follows. The State locality where each species was collected or photographed is also indicated.  This is abbreviated by standard two letter codes for the US and by three letters for Mexico (e.g., BCN for Baja California Norte and BCS for Baja California Sur).  Where more than one species is listed for a genus, the genus name is usually highlighted for the first listing only. 

     An asterisk (*) denotes additional botanical and pharmacological procurement information on antitumor active plants as determined by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) prior to 1982.  These are scans in Adobe Acrobat format of historical documents and publications.  If only the species name (epithet only) is highlighted, then there are no photographs (at this time).  If the species epithet is not highlighted, then the link to the procurement data will be found on the photo page where the species name or other descriptive phrase is highlighted. 

     The historical documents mention phone calls and correspondence on procurement activities by the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) under a cooperative agreement with the NCI for recollections of "active plants", or for Plants of Special Interest ("POSI").  This information was recorded during 19601982.  Initially, small (general) samples of plants were obtained in quantities of ~500 g (19601976), or 1.52.0 kg (19771981).  Plants that showed antitumor activity were considered active for which larger samples (recollections) were obtained, initially 2025 kg (19601971), later ~50 kg (1972-1975), and up to 230 kg (19761982, high priority recollections).  Active agents that were scheduled for clinical studies required much larger quantities or massive samples, usually a minimum of 500 kg.  The recollections were supplied to chemists at NCI contract universities or organizations for the isolation of the antitumor active chemical agent(s).  Their isolation work was guided by the NCI bioassay results on fractionation of extracts. 

     The USDA laboratory that procured plant samples for the NCI was located in Beltsville MD.  Initially it was an investigative unit of the New Crops Research Branch; then in 1972 it became the Medicinal Plant Resources Laboratory (MPRL), and in 1979 the lab name was changed to Economic Botany Laboratory (EBL).  The people involved were mostly the same, while the name changes reflect management re-organizations.  During this time, the NCI had screened extracts from ~35,000 species of plants; about 10% had shown antitumor activity or cytotoxicity in one or more bioassays.  A number of other institutions had also independently supplied plants or extracts of plants to the NCI program for preliminary screening such as the CSIRO (Australia), Central Drug Research Institute (India) National Defense Medical Center (Taiwan), University of Arizona, University of Concepcion (Chile), University of Costa Rica, University of Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) and the University of Hawaii (Spjut 1985).  Nevertheless the ARS lab was by far the major supplier of samples.  The ARS lab obtained plant samples from many areas in the world that included long term contracts with individuals or institutions in Panama, Brazil, Peru, East Africa, South Africa, Ghana, Turkey, Pakistan, India,  Sri Lanka, Thailand, Taiwan, Fiji, New Zealand, and shorter term explorations or contracts from other areas in Mexico, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Egypt, Israel,  Madagascar, Papua New Guinea, and Queensland (see list of plant collectors below).

    The loss of NCI funding in Oct. 1982 for the antitumor screening of natural products required them to terminate their agreement with the ARS, an agreement that had been renewed yearly for 22 years.  Consequently, many files related to the procurement activities of the USDA ARS lab were discarded in Nov. 1982, the most important of which was the voucher-reference samples for each recollection and original sample of each species that showed antitumor activity.  The reference samples, however, for bryophytes and lichens were removed as they were being tossed out, and were later found useful as documentation for voucher specimens in Spjut et al. (1986).

     Some archival records on the USDA ARS procurement of active plants are deposited in the National Agricultural Library (NAL) in Beltsville, Maryland; see ARS Memorandum (1991) by Richard Spjut to Allan Fusonie.  This memo also explains the abbreviations for most collectors.  An example of how these codes apply is shown under Veratrum.  Other historical information was scanned from Abbott et al. (1966, see below) and from a program guide prepared during 19671971 by a research leader,  Robert E. Perdue, Jr.  Scanned images of historical papers that seem most relevant to the USDA ARS procurement program are also cited below; these are in Adobe Acrobat format.

     The program guide (Perdue 19671971) provides many details on the intricacies of the complex filing and codes systems and the overall philosophy of the former ARS plant procurement program for the NCI. This document was scanned from a carbon copy of the guide. Updates to this undoubtedly were made by Perdue during 19711978, but no effort has been made to locate the original or update files, while it may be noted that Perdue (pers. comm., Dec 2001) indicated he had sent slides and other materials to the NAL.  The complexity of the filing system is due to the concern for confidentiality of the data at the time, and the changes in procurement policies that occurred as the NCI-ARS screening program itself evolved.

     When James Duke became leader of the Medicinal Plant Resources Laboratory in May 1978 (to Oct. 1982), he integrated the cancer files on the POSI (Plants of Special Interest) and FOSI (Families of Special Interest) with his files on Economic Botany.  Some files, or materials extracted from such files, probably went with Duke in the 1982 reorganization. 

     Another major record developed by the USDA ARS procurement lab was the assignment of PR numbers (accession records) to plant samples.  Each plant sample shipped by the Beltsville lab was assigned a PR-number to account for the genus, species, authority, plant part, weight of the sample, State or Country where the collection was made, and date of collection.  The samples were sequentially numbered, 1-~58,000 for general samples and recollections, and from 80,000~83,000 for samples of plants regarded of special interest (POSI) or families of special interest (FOSI).  Examples of accession records are provided in pdf format under references for bryophytes collected for antitumor screening (see under USDA). Data were prepared in a typed format with the intent to be later computerized, generally up to 10 accession numbers per page that were then filed in a three-ring binder, up to 1,000 numbers in a binder.  A complete record of this file, consisting of ~58 three-ring binders, had been maintained until Oct. 1982.  The disposition of this file and other relevant records are unknown.

     Other records, which were kept by Richard Spjut concerning his work for the ARS program (19721982), are provided below (North America) and under the page on African plants. These include memoranda and summaries on antitumor active species regarding their botanical characteristics, geographical distribution, ecology, abundance, antitumor activity in related species, and recollection data on plant parts, quantity, date and locality where collected.  Botanical write-ups were routinely prepared to determine where it was most economical to obtain recollections.  Most summaries were prepared for species in East Africa where yearly field work was undertaken by the ARS botanists.  Other memoranda are occasionally cited such as a nomenclatural review of the scientific name for the apple (under Malus), or germplasm summary distribution maps for crops such as Ribes. Additionally, abstracts on recent pharmacological investigations are provided, especially on species related to the anticancer screening of plants.

     The NCI reorganized their natural products program in 1986. They have since obtained thousands of plant samples from mostly tropical areas.  Instead of the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the major suppliers of plant samples are the New York Botanical Garden (tropical America), the Missouri Botanical Garden (tropical Africa and Madagascar), and the University of Illinois at Chicago (tropical Southeast Asia). Although emphasis had been on samples from tropical areas, collections were subsequently obtained from the United States by the Morris Arboretum during 19962000 and by the WBA during 20012004.  The WBA contract with the NIH/NCI required the WBA to procure 1,000 samples each year for up to five years from the US and territories.  This contract was prematurely terminated in 2004 because of NCI budget cuts; however, in September 2007, the NCI again resumed its procurement activities for plant samples from the United States and foreign areas.  Due to requests received from government agencies for electronic copies of accomplishment reports, in addition to the hard-copy that was submitted as required by collecting permits, it was decided to include recent accomplishment reports in the archival data listings below. 

     As time permits, images of voucher specimens are added.  These are scanned at 300 dpi, slides at 600 dpi, and digital photos are shown at high resolution.  Although all photos were optimized for the web, they are not necessarily reduced in size for speed; it was decided that high-speed internet will be the standard with large-screen monitors; thus, if you are using a dial-up service, the photos will load slowly.  The objective here is to allow photos to be magnified to see details often required for taxonomic identification.

     This page and its links are still evolving.  There are thousands of records on active plants and slides that have yet to be scanned.  These are added on occasion; however, if funding can be found for this project, it will be accelerated.

     Unless otherwise indicated, photos were taken by Richard Spjut.  This was usually done to document collection data on voucher specimens in regard to samples collected for the National Cancer Institute's Antitumor Screening Program.  Occasionally, plants are photographed without taking specimens.  Photos are copyrighted material.  They may be used for educational purposes with acknowledgment of the source, R. Spjut.  Most vouchers scans were done by Sally Larsen.

     Vouchers may be found at the U.S. National Arboretum (NA) for collections prior to 1982, the University of Wisconsin at Oshkosh (OSH) for collections from 1981 to 1996, and in the U. S. National Herbarium (US) for collections from Baja California (Mexico, 19791996) and mainland U.S., 1998 to present.  Duplicates may be found at the Botanical Research Institute of Texas (BRIT), East African Herbarium in Nairobi, Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew (K), Missouri Botanical Garden (MO), Universidad Autnoma de Baja California Herbario (BCMEX), Humboldt State University (HSC), World Botanical Associates Herbarium (WBA), and other institutions in accordance with permit requirements.

Selected References (in Adobe Acrobat format)

Abbott, B., J. Leiter, J. L. Hartwell, M. E. Caldwell, J. L. Beal, R. E. Perdue, Jr., and S. A. Schepartz.  1966.  Cancer Chemotherapy Screening Data XXXIV.  Plant Extracts (Entry Nos. 7253373580). Cancer Research Vol. 26, No. 7: 761935 (pp. 761768 reproduced here).

CPAM (Confirmed Plant and Animal Materials).  1977. A.

Hartwell, J.  1976.  Types of Anticancer Agents Isolated from Plants.  Cancer Treatment Reports Vol. 60, No. 8: 1031-1067. August 1976.

Perdue, R. E., Jr. and J. L. Hartwell.  1969. The Search for Plant Sources of Anticancer Drugs.  Morris Arboretum Bulletin Vol. 20, No. 5: 3553.

Spjut, R. W.  1985.  Limitation of a Random Screen: Search for New Anticancer Drugs in Higher Plants.  Economic Botany 39(3): 266288.

Spjut, R. W., M. Suffness, G. M. Cragg, and D. H. Norris 1986. Mosses, hornworts and liverworts screened for antitumor activity. Econ. Bot. 40: 310-338.

Spjut, R. W.  2005.  Relationships Between Plant Folklore and Antitumor Activity: An Historical Review.  Sida 21(4): 22052241.  For unpublished reports cited in this paper, see also studies on Medicinal and Poisonous Plants.

Spjut, R. W. 2010. Review of plants collected for antitumor screening.  Minor additions and editing, May 31, 2010.  Placed on the WBA webpage May 31, 2010. Printed copies provided by mail in early January to ~30 scientists at the BLM, NCI, USDA Forest Service, and chemists at universities that have been active in drug discovery groups for finding novel antitumor, chemopreventive, and anti-HIV agents in natural products.

Memoranda and Unpublished Reports (cited in Spjut 1985, Economic Botany)

NIH NCI Memoranda

1971. Sep 22. Minutes of the Plant Meeting.  Sydney Richman to DP & CSDA, PRA, DR&D, C, NCI, with cc to Abbot, Hartwell, Mancher, Murray, Schpartz and Wood.

1978.  Oct. 12. Recollections of KB Actives.  Matthew Suffness to Arthur S. Barclay, with cc to M. Hatcher and J. Douros.

1979 Feb. 14, Matthew Suffness to James Duke.  Printout of genera screened.  1 p.

1979 Mar. 13, Matthew Suffness to James Duke.  GESOCfurther clarification of purpose.  2 pp.

1979 June 19, Matthew Suffness to Arthur S. Barclay.  Combined GESOC and 6-Plus ListYour Memo of April 27, 1979.  1 p.

USDA ARS Memoranda

1978 Oct. 23, Richard Spjut to Arthur S. Barclay.  Fresh and Dry Weight Data on Samples Collected in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and Tennessee, 1978. 4 p.

1978 Oct. 24, Richard Spjut to Arthur S. Barclay. Plants Used Against Cancer: Sonoran Desert and Temperate North American Genera With Less Than Six Collections Tested.  3 p.

1978 Oct. 31, Richard Spjut to Arthur S. Barclay. Selected Medicinal Plants for Field Work, 1978-79. 4 p.

1979. Oct. 5. Costs for Recent Field Work to Collect General Samples and Recollections. R. W. Spjut to Arthur S. Barclay.  2 p.

1979. Oct. Annual Report, October 1, 1978 September 30, 1979.  Economic Botany Laboratory, Plant Genetics and Germplasm Institute, Science and Education Administration, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 20705.  8 pp.

1980. Jan. 17. California Annual to Perennial Genera Not Tested In the Cancer Program.  Excludes Grasses and Woody Plants, Richard Spjut to POSI. 1 p.

1980 Feb. 14. [USDA ARS] List of Plant Species Confirmed Active, Screened 6 or More Times and GESOC.  Revised Feb. 14, 1980. 33 p.  Referred to as SLOP for Species Low On Priority by Spjut in Economic Botany (1985) and also cited by Spjut in Sida (2005). GESOC is an acronym for Genera Extensively Screened Or Completed.

1981 Apr 15-May 30. Travel Report by Richard Spjut: Texas, Nevada, California, and Oregon.  Copies to James Duke, Paul Putnam, and Allan Stoner. 12 p.

1981 Aug. [USDA ARS] Accomplishment Report.  Procurement of Plant Samples from Mexico & U. S. for Antitumor Screening. Prepared by Richard Spjut in regard to requirements for plant collecting permit from Mexico.  17 p.

Plant Collectors for the USDA and the NCI

Perdue, R. W.  1967-1970.  Program Guide for the Cancer Program.  61 p.  Excludes information on general and foreign correspondence, purchase order procedures, and other record keeping procedures.

[USDA ARS] List of Plant Collectors and their addresses who collected samples for the National Cancer Institute (NCI), 19601982.

List of Plant contractors and remaining fundsDec 3, 1981 (Compiled by Mae Hatcher). 2p.

1985 Sep. 27. USDA ARS Plant Explorers and Their Explorations, 18981982.  Compiled by Richard Spjut, printout. 42 p.

East African Plant Collectors, by Diana and Roger Polhill. 2015. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey. 520 pp. A record of some 2,700 people who have collected herbarium specimens in Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania, designed as a supplement to the Flora of Tropical East Africa. The profiles give an indication of careers and interest, the places where the plants have been collected and herbaria in which the specimens are located.  Biographical summaries accompanied by photos for most collectors. Beautifully done.   A timeline and a synopsis...of professions and the changes through the eras since the first recorded herbarium specimens collected in 1781. Example: Richard Spjut.

WBA Plant Collection Reports for the National Cancer Institute 20012004

I.   Annual Report for Year II: Western United States including Alaska and Texas
A. Appendix: Plant Samples Collected Year II for the NCI

II.  Plant Collections From Hawaii
A. Appendix II. Hawaiian Plants Active in the NCI Screen (1960-1982)

III. Plant Collections From Puerto Rico
A. Appendix 1. Plants Sampled from Puerto Rico
B. Appendix II. Plants from Puerto Rico Active in the NCI Screen (19601982)

IV. Final Report (text)
A. Appendix I. List of Families/Genera/Species/Plant Parts Collected

Photos: Alphabetical by genus and species name

*Denotes species and State of origin for sample(s) with
antitumor activity.  Click on the genus name to view plant photos, or
click on the species name (epithet) to see historical data on
recollections of active plants for cancer research.

    AC (below)        DK               LQ               RZ
 

 

Abies

concolor

 

 

OR CA

  Abies

lasiocarpa

 

 

CA ID

  Abies

magnifica

var.

shastensis

CA*

  Abies

religiosa

 

 

OAX*

Abronia

fragrans

    UT

  Abronia

latifolia

 

 

CA*

  Abronia

villosa

var.

villosa

CA

Abrus

precatorius

 

 

FL*

Abutilon

incanum

    TX

Acacia

angustissima

 

 

AZ*

  Acacia

berlandieri

 

 

TX

  Acacia

constricta

 

 

TX

  Acacia

greggii

var.

greggii

AZ CA TX

  Acacia

koa

 

 

HI

  Acacia

roemeriana

 

 

TX*

Acalypha

californica

 

 

BCN*

  Acalypha

hederacea

 

 

TX*

Acamptopappus

shockleyi

 

 

CA, NV

 Acamptopappus

sphaerocephalus

 

 

W NV

Acanthogilia

gloriosa

 

 

BCN

Achyronychia

cooperi

 

 

CA

Acleisanthes

longiflora

 

 

NLE*

Acourtia

nana

 

 

AZ

  Acourtia

wrightii

 

 

AZ

Acrocomia

mexicana

 

 

NAY*

Actaea rubra     CO

Adenophyllum

cooperi

 

 

CA

  Adenophyllum

porophylloides

   

CA

Adenostoma

fasciculatum

 

 

CA

Adiantum pedatum     ID

Adolphia

californica

 

 

BCN

  Adolphia

infesta

 

 

TX

Aechmea

bracteata

 

 

JAL

Aesculus

californica

 

 

CA*

  Aesculus

parryi

 

 

BCN

Agave*

americana

 

 

TX*

  Agave

lecheguilla

 

 

TX*

  Agave

shawei

 

 

BCN

  Agave

utahensis

 

 

NV

  Agave

spp.

 

 

TX

Agastache

urticifolia

 

 

UT*

Ageratina

wrightii

 

 

TX

Agnorhiza

elata

    CA

Ailanthus

altissima

 

 

CA

Aliciella latifolia    

CA

Allenrolfea occidentalis     CA

Allionia

incarnata

 

 

TX

Allium

drummondii

 

 

TX*

  Allium

haematochiton

 

 

CA

  Allium

kunthii

 

 

TX

  Allium

peninsulare

 

 

CA

  Allium

triquetum

 

 

CA

Alnus

arguta

 

 

VER*

  Alnus

crispa

 

 

AK

  Alnus

incana

var.

tenuifolia

CA

  Alnus

rubra

 

 

CA*

Aloysia

wrightii

 

 

TX

Alvaradoa

amorphoides

 

 

JAL*

Amaranthus

albus

 

 

NV

  Amaranthus

fimbriatus

 

 

NV

  Amaranthus

hybridus

 

 

MD

  Amaranthus

palmeri

 

 

NM

Ambrosia

acanthicarpa

 

 

AZ CA

  Ambrosia

ambrosioides

 

 

AZ SON*

  Ambrosia

artemisiifolia

 

 

NM

  Ambrosia

bryantii

 

 

BCN

  Ambrosia

camphorata

 

 

BCN

  Ambrosia

chamissonis

 

 

CA*

  Ambrosia

chenopodifolia

 

 

BCN

  Ambrosia

deltoidea

 

 

TX

  Ambrosia

dumosa

 

 

CA

  Ambrosia

eriocentra

 

 

NV

  Ambrosia

ilicifolia

 

 

S CA

Amelanchier

alnifolia

var.

cusickii

ID

  Amelanchier

alnifolia

var.

pumila

CA

  Amelanchier

denticulata

 

 

OAX*

  Amelanchier

laevis

 

 

NC*

  Amelanchier

sanguinea

 

 

MI*

  Amelanchier

spicata

 

 

MI*

Ammobroma

sonorae

 

 

S CA

Ammocodon

chenopodioides

 

 

AZ*

Ammophila

arenaria

 

 

CA

Amphipappus

fremontii

 

 

CA

Amsinckia douglasiana     CA

  Amsinckia

eastwoodiae

 

 

CA

  Amsinckia

gloriosa

    CA

  Amsinckia

intermedia

    CA

  Amsinckia

lycopsoides

    CA

  Amsinckia

menziesii

 

 

CA

  Amsinckia

tessellata

 

 

CA

  Amsinckia

vernicosa

var.

vernicosa

CA

Amsonia

eastwoodiana

 

 

UT

  Amsonia hirtella     AZ

  Amsonia

tabernaemontana

 

 

AL*

  Amsonia

tomentosa

 

 

CA

Anagallis

arvensis

 

 

CA

Anaphalis margaritacea     CA

Anemone

deltoidea

 

 

CA

  Anemone

occidentalis

 

 

CA

Anemopsis

californica

 

 

CA

Angelica

arguta

 

 

CA

  Angelica

hendersonii

 

 

CA*

  Angelica

lucida

 

 

AK

Anisocoma

acaulis

 

 

CA

Antennaria luzuloides     CA

Anthemis

cotula

 

 

CA

Anthericum

torreyi

 

 

AZ*

Antigonon

leptopus

 

 

BCS

Antirrhinum

coulterianum

 

 

CA

  Antirrhinum

nuttalianum

 

 

CA

Anulocaulis

annulatus

 

 

NV

Apocynum

pumilum

 

 

CA*

  Apocynum

suksdorfii

 

 

AZ*

Aralia

californica

 

 

CA

  Aralia

nudicaule

 

 

MI*

Arbutus

menziesii

 

 

CA

  Arbutus

xalapensis

 

 

MIC*

Arctium

minus

 

 

AZ* WA*

Arctomecon

californica

 

 

NV

Arctostaphylos andersonii     CA

  Arctostaphylos

canescens

ssp.

canescens

CA

  Arctostaphylos

canescens

ssp. sonomensis CA

 Arctostaphylos

catalinae

 

 

CA

  Arctostaphylos

confertiflora

    CA

  Arctostaphylos

crustacea

    CA

  Arctostaphylos

franciscana

    CA

  Arctostaphylos

gabilanensis

    CA

  Arctostaphylos

glandulosa

ssp. glandulosa OR

  Arctostaphylos

glandulosa

ssp.

mollis

CA

  Arctostaphylos

glandulosa

ssp.

zacaensis

CA

  Arctostaphylos

glauca

 

 

CA

  Arctostaphylos

hookeri

ssp. hearstorium CA

  Arctostaphylos

hookeri

ssp. hookeri CA

  Arctostaphylos

imbricata

    CA

  Arctostaphylos

manzanita

ssp. roofii CA

  Arctostaphylos

montarensis

    CA

  Arctostaphylos

morroensis

    CA

  Arctostaphylos

nevadensis

 

 

CA

  Arctostaphylos

obispoensis

    CA

  Arctostaphylos

pajorensis

    CA

  Arctostaphylos

pilosula

    CA

  Arctostaphylos

patula

 

 

CA, UT

  Arctostaphylos

pringlei

ssp.

pringlei

AZ

  Arctostaphylos

pungens

 

 

AZ

  Arctostaphylos

rainbowensis

    CA

  Arctostaphylos

rubra

 

 

AK

  Arctostaphylos

rudis

    CA

  Arctostaphylos

stanfordiana

 

 

CA

  Arctostaphylos

subcordata

    CA

  Arctostaphylos

tomentosa

ssp. tomentosa CA

  Arctostaphylos

uva-ursi

 

 

OR

  Arctostaphylos

viscida

ssp.

viscida

CA

  Arctostaphylos

viscida

ssp.

mariposa

CA

Arenaria

congesta

 

 

CA

  Arenaria

hookeri

 

 

WY

Argemone

gracilenta

 

 

AZ

  Argemone

mexicana

 

 

Mexico

  Argemone

munita

 

 

Mexico*

  Argemone

platyceras

 

 

Mexico*

  Argemone

pleiacantha

ssp.

pleiacantha

AZ

Arida carnosa     CA

Ariocarpus

fissuratus

 

 

TX*

Aristolochia

taliscana

 

 

NAY*

Arnica

chamissonis ssp. foliosa

var.

incana

CA*

  Arnica

chamissonis ssp. foliosa

 

 

AZ*

  Arnica

longifolia

 

 

CA*

  Arnica

nevadensis

 

 

CA

Artemisia

douglasiana

 

 

CA

  Artemisia

nova

 

 

UT

  Artemisia

spinescens

 

 

NV

  Artemisia

tridentata

 

 

CA UT

Aruncus

dioicus

 

 

CA

  Aruncus

sylvester

 

 

AK

  Aruncus

vulgaris

 

 

OR*

Asclepias

albicans

 

 

CA*

  Asclepias

curassavica

 

 

MIC*

  Asclepias

eriocarpa

 

 

CA*

  Asclepias

erosa

 

 

AZ*

  Asclepias

subulata

 

 

CA*

  Asclepias

vestita

 

 

S CA

Asphodelus

fistulosus

 

 

CA*

Aster

glaucodes

 

 

CO*

  Aster

paucicapitatus

 

 

WA*

  Aster

sagitattifolius

 

 

MI*

Astragalus

agnicidus

 

 

CA

  Astragalus

douglasii

 

 

CA

  Astragalus

giganteus

 

 

NM*

  Astragalus

lentiginosus

 

 

AZ*

  Astragalus

lentiginosus

var. nigricalycis CA

Atamisquea

emarginata

 

 

BCS*

Atrichoseris

platyphylla

 

 

CA

Atriplex

acanthocarpa

 

 

TX

  Atriplex

canescens

 

 

CA NV TX

  Atriplex

confertifolia

 

 

CA

  Atriplex

corrugata

 

 

WY

  Atriplex

elegans

 

 

CA NV

  Atriplex

hymenelytra

 

 

NV

  Atriplex

julacea

 

 

BCN

  Atriplex

lentiformis

 

 

AZ

  Atriplex

obovata

 

 

TX

  Atriplex

parryi

 

 

CA

  Atriplex

phyllostegia

    CA

  Atriplex

polycarpa

 

 

CA

  Atriplex spinifera     CA

  Atriplex

torreyi

 

 

CA

Ayenia

filiformis

 

 

TX

Baccharis

megapotamica

 

 

Brazil*

  Baccharis

pilularis

 

 

CA

  Baccharis

salicifolia

    CA

  Baccharis

sarothroides

 

 

CA* AZ

Bahia

absinthifolia

 

 

TX

Baileya

multiradiata

 

 

CA

  Baileya

pauciradiata

 

 

CA*

  Baileya

pleniradiata

 

 

AZ* CA

  Baileya

sp.

 

 

AZ

Balsamorhiza

deltoidea

 

 

CA

  Balsamorhiza

hookeri

 

 

CA

  Balsamorhiza

sagittata

 

  ID

Bassia

hyssopifolia

 

 

UT

Bebbia

juncea

var.

aspera

CA

Begonia

nelumbiifolia

 

 

Mexico HI*

Berberis

haematocarpa

 

 

AZ

  Berberis

trifoliolata

 

 

TX

Berginia

virgata

var.

glandulifera

BCS*

Bergerocactus

emoryi

 

 

BCN*

Betula

kenaica

 

 

AK

  Betula

nana

 

 

AK

  Betula

occidentalis

 

 

CA*

Blepharidachne

kingii

 

 

AZ

Bocconia

arborea

 

 

OAX*

  Bocconia

frutescens

 

 

VCR*

  Bocconia

latisepala

 

 

NLE*

Boechera arcuata     CA

Boehmeria

caudata

 

 

VER*

Boerhavia

intermedia

 

 

TX

  Boerhavia

spicata

 

 

TX

  Boerhavia

wrightii

 

 

AZ

Boschniakia

rossica

 

 

AK

Bouchea

linifolia

 

 

TX

Bouteloua

barbata

 

 

TX

  Bouteloua

ramosa

 

 

TX

Bouvaridia

erecta

 

 

PUE

  Bouvaridia

ternifolia

 

 

COA*

Boykinia

major

    ID

Brandegea

bigelovii

 

 

CA*

Brassica

campestris

 

 

NC*

  Brassica

tournefortii

 

 

CA

Brickellia

atractyloides

 

 

AZ* NV

  Brickellia

californica

 

 

CA

  Brickellia

coulteri

 

 

AZ

  Brickellia

floribunda

 

 

AZ

  Brickellia

incana

 

 

CA

  Brickellia

laciniata

 

 

TX

  Brickellia

microphylla

 

 

CA NV

  Brickellia

oblongifolia

 

 

CA

Bromus

inermis

 

 

WY*

  Bromus

madritensis

ssp.

rubens

NV

Brongniartia

benthamiana

 

 

OAX*

Buddleja

marrubifolia

 

 

TX

  Buddleja

scordioides

 

 

TX

  Buddleja

utahensis

 

 

CA, NV

Bursera

arida

 

 

PUE*

  Bursera

confusa

 

 

SON*

  Bursera

fagaroides

 

 

OAX*

  Bursera

microphylla

 

 

BCN* PUE* AZ

  Bursera

multijuga

 

 

NAY*

  Bursera

schlechtendalii

 

 

PUE*

  Bursera

sp.

 

 

BCS* SON*

Caesalpinia

gilliesii

 

 

TX* AZ*

  Caesalpinia

placida

 

 

BCS

  Caesalpinia

pulcherrima

 

 

VER* SIN*

Cakile

maritima

 

 

CA

Calandrinia ciliata     CA

Calea

urticaefolia

 

 

NAY*

Calliandra

anomala

 

 

MIC*

  Calliandra

californica

 

 

BCN

  Calliandra

eriophylla

 

 

SE CA

Callirhoe

digitata

 

 

TX*

Callistemon

speciosus

 

 

CA*

Calocedrus

decurrens

 

 

CA*

Calochortus

coerulens

 

 

CA

  Calochortus flexuosus     AZ

  Calochortus

kennedyi

 

 

AZ

  Calochortus

splendens

 

 

CA

  Calochortus

westonii

    CA

Calycanthus

occidentalis

CA
Calycoseris wrightii     CA
Calylophus sp.     NV

Calypso

bulbosa

 

 

CA

Calyptridium

umbellatum

 

 

CA

Calystegia

longipes

 

 

CA

  Calystegia malacophylla     CA
  Calystegia occidentalis     UT

  Calystegia

soldanella

 

 

CA*

Camassia

quamash

ssp.

breviflora

CA

Camissonia

brevipes

 

 

S CA

  Camissonia

californica

 

 

CA

  Camissonia

campestris

 

 

CA

  Camissonia

chamaenerioides

 

 

CA

  Camissonia

cheiranthifolia

 

 

CA

  Camissonia

claviformis

 

 

CA*

  Camissonia

crassifolia

 

 

BCS*

  Camissonia

graciliflora

    CA

  Camissonia

palmeri

    CA

  Camissonia

robusta

 

 

CA

Camissoniopsis       CA

Camptotheca

acuminata

 

 

CA*

Canotia

holacantha

 

 

AZ

Cardamine

nuttallii

 

 

CA

Cardaria

pubescens

 

 

CA

Cardionema

ramosissima

 

 

CA

Carex

abscondita

 

 

MD

  Carex

buxbaumii

 

 

AK

  Carex

crawfordii

 

 

AK

  Carex

crinita

 

 

MD

  Carex

echinata

 

 

AK

  Carex

folliculata

 

 

MD

  Carex

frankii

 

 

MD

  Carex

laevivaginata

 

 

MD

  Carex

lurida

 

 

MD

  Carex

lyngybaei

 

 

AK

  Carex

occidentalis

 

 

AZ*

  Carex

radiata

 

 

MD

  Carex

saxatilis

 

 

AK

  Carex

utriculata

 

 

CA

Carlowrightia

linearifolia

    TX

Carnegiea

gigantea

 

 

AZ

Carpobrotus

edulis

 

 

CA

Cassiope

stellariana

 

 

AK

  Cassiope

tetragona

 

 

AK

Castanopsis

chrysophylla

 

 

OR*

Castela

galapageia

 

 

Galapagos Is.

  Castela

peninsularis

 

 

BCS*

  Castela

polyandra

 

 

BCS

  Castela

texana

 

 

TX

  Castela

tortuosa

 

 

Mexico

Castilla

elastica

 

 

VER*

Castilleja

angustifolia

 

 

CA

  Castilleja

applegatei

 

 

CA

  Castilleja

arachnoidea

 

 

CA

  Castilleja

caudata

 

 

AK

  Castilleja

chromosa

 

 

NV

  Castilleja

foliosa

 

 

CA

  Castilleja

mendocinensis

 

 

CA

  Castilleja

miniata

 

 

CA

  Castilleja

rhexifolia

 

 

UT

  Castilleja

unalaschensis

 

 

AK

Caulanthus coulteri     CA

  Caulanthus

inflatus

 

 

CA

Ceanothus*

americanus

 

 

NC*

  Ceanothus

cuneatus

 

 

CA

  Ceanothus

fresnensis

 

 

CA

  Ceanothus

greggii

 

 

AZ NV

  Ceanothus

integerrimus

 

 

CA

  Ceanothus

leucodermis

 

 

CA

  Ceanothus

megacarpus

 

 

CA

  Ceanothus

spinosus

 

 

CA

  Ceanothus

thyrsiflorus

 

 

CA*

  Ceanothus

tomentosus

 

 

S CA

  Ceanothus

velutinus

 

 

CA

Celosia

floribunda

 

 

BCS

Celtis

pallida

 

 

TX

Centaurea

americana

 

 

TX*

  Centaurea

maculosa

 

 

MI*

  Centaurea

melitensis

 

 

AZ*

  Centaurea

solstitialis

 

 

CA*

Cephalanthus

occidentalis

 

 

CA*

Cerastium

glomeratum

 

 

TX*

  Cerastium

texanum

 

 

AZ*

Cercidium

floridum

 

 

AZ

  Cercidium

microphyllum

 

 

BCS*

Cercis

canadensis*

var.

mexicana

TX

Cercocarpus

betuloides

 

 

CA*

  Cercocarpus

intricatus

 

 

NV CA

  Cercocarpus

ledifolius

 

 

CA AZ

  Cercocarpus

minutiflorus

 

 

CA

  Cercocarpus

montanus

 

 

AZ

Cereus

pentagonus

 

 

AZ*

Cestrum

fasciculata

 

 

PUE*

Cevallia

sinuata

 

 

TX

Chaenactis

artemisiifolia

 

 

CA

  Chaenactis

fremontii

 

 

CA

  Chaenactis

glabriuscula

 

 

CA

  Chaenactis

stevioides

 

 

CA

Chaetopappa

ericoides

 

 

CA

Chamaebatia

australis

 

 

CA

Chamaebatiaria

millefolium

 

 

CA

Chamaecyparis

nootkatensis

 

 

WA*

Chamaesyce

albomarginata

 

 

CA

  Chamaesyce

arizonica

 

 

AZ

  Chamaesyce

celastroides

 

 

HI

  Chamaesyce

maculata

 

 

CA

  Chamaesyce

parryi

 

 

TX

  Chamaesyce

polycarpa

 

 

CA

  Chamaesyce

prostrata

 

 

CA

  Chamaesyce

serpyllifolia

 

 

AZ CA

Chenopodium

murale

 

 

CA

Chimaphila

umbellata

 

 

CA

Chlorogalum

parviflorum

 

 

CA

  Chlorogalum

pomeridianum

 

 

CA*

Chorispora tenella     NV

Chorizanthe

brevicornu

 

 

NV

  Chorizanthe

diffusa

 

 

CA*

  Chorizanthe

staticoides

 

 

CA

  Chorizanthe

watsonii

     

Chrysolepis

sempervirens

 

 

CA*

Chrysothamnus

nauseosus

 

 

CA CO*

  Chrysothamnus

viscidiflorus

 

 

CA

Chrysanthemum

segetum

 

 

CA*

Chylismia

      CA

Cirsium

scariosum

 

 

CA

  Cirsium

vulgare

 

 

CA

Citharexylum

mocinnii

 

 

VER*

Citrus

aurantiifolia

 

 

GUE*

Claopodium

crispifolium

 

 

CA*

Clarkia

amoena

 

 

CA*

  Clarkia

purpurea

ssp.

quadrivulnera

CA

Claytonia

lanceolata

 

 

UT

  Claytonia

parviflora

ssp.

parviflora 

CA

  Claytonia

sibirica

 

 

CA

Clematis*

drummondii

 

 

TX

  Clematis

hirsutissima

 

 

ID

  Clematis

ligusticifolia

 

 

CA

  Clematis

sanguiniana

 

 

MI*

  Clematis

sp.

 

 

SON*

Cleome

lutea

 

 

NV

  Cleome

aff. platycarpa

 

 

NV

Cleomella

obtusifolia

 

 

CA

Clintonia

borealis

 

 

VT

  Clintonia

uniflora

 

 

CA

Cneoridium

dumosum

 

 

CA

Cnidium

cnidiifolium

 

 

AK

Cochlospermum

vitifolium

 

 

OAX*

Coleogyne

ramosissima

 

 

CA

Collinsia torreyi     CA

Colubrina

californica

 

 

CA*

  Colubrina

greggii

 

 

OAX*

  Colubrina

texensis

 

 

TX*

Combretum

farinosum

 

 

NAY*

Condalia

globosa

 

 

BCN CA

  Condalia

hookeri

 

 

TX

  Condalia

warnockii

 

 

TX

  Condalia

viridis

 

 

TX

Convolvulus

arvensis

 

 

C CA

Conyza

canadensis

 

 

CA AZ*

Coralloriza

mertensiana

 

 

CA

Cordylanthus wrightii     UT

Coreopsis

bigelovii

 

 

CA

Corethrogyne filaginifolia     CA

Coriaria

thymifolia

 

 

MIC*

Cornus

glabrata

 

 

CA NV

  Cornus

nuttallii

 

 

CA*

  Cornus

rugosa

 

 

MI

  Cornus

sericea

ssp.

sericea

CA*

  Cornus

stricta

 

 

NC*

  Cornus

suecica

 

 

AK

Corylus

cornuta

var.

californica

CA*

Coronopus

didymus

 

 

CA

Corynopuntia aggeria     TX
  Corynopuntia invicta     BCS
  Corynopuntia parishii

NV

Cotoneaster

lactea

 

 

CA

Couepia

polyandra

 

 

JAL*

Coulterella

capitata

 

 

BCS

Coutarea

latiflora

 

 

SON*

Cowania

ericifolia

 

 

TX

  Cowania

stansburiana

 

 

AZ CA NV UT

Crataegus

douglasii

var.

douglasii

ID OR*

Crepis

acuminata

 

 

OR

  Crepis

occidentalis

 

 

NV

  Crepis

tectorum

 

 

AK

Crescentia

alata

 

 

JAL

Crocidium multicaule     CA

Crossosoma

bigelovii

 

 

CA*

Croton

californicus

 

 

CA* AZ*

  Croton

punctatus

 

 

NC*

  Croton

texensis

 

 

NM*

  Croton

wigginsii

 

 

CA

Crucianella

sp.

 

 

CA*

Cryptantha abata     UT

  Cryptantha

angustifolia

 

 

CA, NV

  Cryptantha

barbigera

 

 

CA

  Cryptantha capitata     UT

  Cryptantha

circumscissa

 

 

CA NV

  Cryptantha

costata

 

 

CA

  Cryptantha

confertiflora

 

 

CA, NV*

  Cryptantha

aff. echinella

 

 

CA

  Cryptantha flava     UT
  Cryptantha flavoculata     NV
  Cryptantha glomerifolia     CA

  Cryptantha

holoptera

 

 

CA

  Cryptantha

inaequata

 

 

CA

  Cryptantha

intermedia

 

 

CA

  Cryptantha

maritima

 

 

CA

  Cryptantha

muricata

 

 

CA

  Cryptantha

nevadensis

    CA
  Cryptantha oxygona     CA

  Cryptantha

pterocarya

 

 

CA

  Cryptantha

racemosa

 

 

CA

  Cryptantha

simulans

 

 

CA

  Cryptantha

tumulosa

 

 

NV

  Cryptantha

virginensis

 

 

NV

Cryptostegia

grandiflora

 

 

SON*

Cucurbita

foetidissima

 

 

CA* AZ* NM*

  Cucurbita

palmata

 

 

CA* AZ*

Cuphea

hookeriana

 

 

JAL*

Cupressus

abramsiana

 

 

WA* CA

  Cupressus

guadalupensis

 

 

CA*

  Cupressus

pygmaea

 

 

CA*

Cuscuta

indecorum

 

 

CA

Cylindropuntia

acanthocarpa

 

 

CA

  Cylindropuntia

bigelovii

 

 

CA

  Cylindropuntia

californica

var.

rosarica

BCS

  Cylindropuntia

cholla

 

 

BCN

  Cylindropuntia

echinocarpa

 

 

BCN CA

  Cylindropuntia

fulgida

 

 

AZ

  Cylindropuntia

leptocaulis

 

 

TX

  Cylindropuntia

molesta

 

 

BCN

  Cylindropuntia

munzii

 

 

BCN/BCS

  Cylindropuntia

parryi

 

 

CA

  Cylindropuntia

ramosissima

 

 

CA

  Cylindropuntia

whipplei

 

 

AZ

Cynanchum

unifarium

 

 

TX

  Cynanchum

utahense

 

 

CA

Cynara

cardunculus

 

 

CA

Cyphomeris

gypsophiloides

 

 

TX

Cypripedium

spp.

 

 

NC*

Cytisus

scoparius

 

 

OR

DK               LQ               RZ