Apocynaceae (Asclepiadaceae)

©The World Botanical Associates Web Page
Prepared by Richard W. Spjut
May 2004, Dec 2007

Cynanchum utahense
Imperial Co., CA
Mar 2004

Cynanchum utahense
Colorado River, Imperial Co., CA
Apr 1980

Cynanchum unifarium
SW Texas, Spjut & Marin 15143
Nov 2002



Lee K.Y., J. S. Yoon, E. S. Kim, S. Y. Kang and Y. C. Kim.  2005.  Anti-acetylcholinesterase and anti-amnesic activities of a pregnane glycoside, cynatroside B, from Cynanchum atratum.  Planta Med. 71(1): 7-11.  “We previously reported that seven pregnane glycosides including cynatroside B isolated from the roots of Cynanchum atratum significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. In the present study, we have characterized the mode of AChE inhibition of cynatroside B, the most potent of these isolated pregnane glycoside inhibitors. We have also examined the anti-amnesic activity of cynatroside B. Cynatroside B inhibited AChE activity in a dose-dependent manner and its IC50 value was 3.6 microM. The mode of AChE inhibition by cynatroside B was reversible and non-competitive in nature. Moreover, cynatroside B (1.0 mg/kg body weight i.p.) significantly ameliorated memory impairments induced in mice by scopolamine (1.0 mg/kg body weight s.c.) as measured in the passive avoidance and the Morris water maze tests. We suggest, therefore, that cynatroside B has both anti-AChE and anti-amnesic activities that may ultimately hold significant therapeutic value in alleviating certain memory impairments observed in Alzheimer's disease.

Peng X. D., Q. S. Yan, R. Wang, W. D. Yang and J. Z.  Peng.  2007. [Hypnotic effect of Chinese materia medica Cynanchum chinese in mice]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 32(17): 1774–1776. “The independent activity test and the hypnotic synergism test by sub-threshold hypnotic dosage of pentobarbital were employed to evaluate the central pharmacological effect of the extract-compounds, and the minimal neurotoxicity was evaluated by the rotorod test.” “The extract-compounds exhibited significant dose-related inhibition effect of the spontaneous motor activity in mice after intraperitoneal administration. And the two extract-compounds promoted the hypnotic effect by sub-threshold hypnotic dosage administration of pentobarbital, and produced ED50 value of 2.36 g kg (-1) and 0.75 g kg(-1), respectively. Also, both extract-compounds showed no neurotoxicity in the experiment. The extract compounds from C. chinese showed inhibitional effect on CNS.”