The World Botanical Associates Web Page
Prepared by Richard W. Spjut
May 2004, May 2006, Dec 2007

Buddleja marrubifolia
Black Gap Wildlife Management Area, TX
Nov 2007

Buddleja scordioides
Presidio Co., TX
Spjut & Marin 14521, Nov 2001

Buddleja utahensis
Nye Co., Indian Springs, NV
Spjut 15234, May 2003


Buddleja utahensis
Mesquite Mts., CA
May 2006


Buddleja utahensis
Clark Co., NV
May 2006




Acevedo L., E. Martinez, P. Castaneda, S. Franzblau, B. N. Timmermann, E. Linares, R. Bye and R. Mata.  2000. New phenylethanoids from Buddleja cordata subsp. cordata. Planta Med. 66(3): 257261. Bioassay-guided fractionation of a crude extract of the stem bark of Buddleja cordata subsp. cordata with significant antimycobacterial activity led to the isolation of a mixture composed by ten new long-chain esters of 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethanol (1-10), along with the lichen metabolites methyl beta-orcinolcarboxylate (11) and beta-orcinolcarboxylate (12). Extensive HPLC allowed the separation of the major components of the mixture, which were characterized by spectral means as 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl stearate (3), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl behenate (6), and 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl lignocerate (8). The minor esters were identified as 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl palmitate (1), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl heptadecanoate (2), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl nonadecanoate (4), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl arachidate (5), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl tricosanoate (7), 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl pentacosanoate (9), and 2[4'-hydroxyphenyl]-ethyl hexacosanoate (10) by GC-MS analysis of the methyl esters derivatives of the fatty acids obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of the mixture. Compound 8 exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MIC = 64 micrograms/ml).

Avila J. G., J. G. de Liverant, A. Martinez, G. Martinez, J. L. Munoz, A. Arciniegas and A. Romo de Vivar.  1999. Mode of action of Buddleja cordata verbascoside against Staphylococcus aureus.  J. Ethnopharmacol. 66(1): 7578.  We evaluate the mode of action of verbascoside obtained from Buddleja cordata against Staphylococcus aureus by killing kinetics and incorporation of precursors methods. Verbascoside induced lethal effect on S. aureus, by affecting protein synthesis and inhibiting leucine incorporation.

Emam A. M., R. Elias, A. M. Moussa, R. Faure, L. Debrauwer and G. Balansard.  1998. Two flavonoid triglycosides from Buddleja madagascariensis.  Phytochemistry 48(4):739742. The structures of two new flavonoid triglycosides isolated from leaves of Buddleja madagascariensis have been established as hesperetin and diosmetin 7-O (2",6"- di-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosides using mass and NMR spectroscopy. Scutellarien 7-glucoside is reported from this plant for the first time.

Emam A. M., A. M. Moussa, R. Faure, R. Elias and G. Balansard.  1997. Isolation of mimengoside B, a triterpenoid saponin from Buddleja madagascariensis.  J. Ethnopharmacol. 58(3): 215217.  The leaves of Buddleja madagascariensis are traditionally used to treat asthma, coughs and bronchitis. In this report we describe, for the first time, the identification of mimengoside B, a triterpenoid saponin, in the leaves of this plant.

Emam A. M., A. M. Diaz-Lanza, L. Matellano-Fernandez, A. M. Moussa and G. Balansard.  1997. Biological activities of buddlejasaponin isolated from Buddleja madagascariensis and Scrophularia scorodonia.  Pharmazie 52(1): 7677.

Houghton P. J., A. Y. Mensah, N. Iessa and L. Y.Hong.  2003. Terpenoids in Buddleja: relevance to chemosystematics, chemical ecology and biological activity.
Phytochemistry 64(2): 385393.
The terpenoids reported from Buddleja species are described. The antifungal activity of chloroform extracts of B. cordata and B. davidii stembark against the soil fungi Fusarium culmorum and Sordari fimicola is reported, with buddledin A shown to be the major compound responsible. The terpenoids present support the view that the Buddlejaceae should be classified in a taxon with Scrophulariaceae rather than Loganiaceae. Ecological aspects of the terpenoids are considered in relation to insects and soil fungi and the role of terpenoids in the chemical basis of the use of Buddleja in traditional medicine is also discussed, especially with regard to their anti-inflammatory properties.

Houghton P. J. and H. Hikino.  1989.  Anti-hepatotoxic activity of extracts and constituents of Buddleja species.  Planta Med. 55(2): 123126.

Houghton P. J. 1984. Ethnopharmacology of some Buddleja species.  J. Ethnopharmacol. 11(3): 293308.

Liao Y. H., P. J. Houghton and J. R. Hoult.  1999. Novel and known constituents from Buddleja species and their activity against leukocyte eicosanoid generation. J Nat Prod. 62(9): 12411245.  We have undertaken a systematic survey of the genus Buddleja used in traditional Chinese medicine for antiinflammatory and other indications by testing extracts and isolated natural products for their activity against the enzymes of the arachidonate cascade. This was done by using elicited rat peritoneal leukocytes, a physiologically relevant established whole cell system that expresses both cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity. Lipophilic extracts of B. globosa roots and B. myriantha stem exhibited inhibitory activities in the 5-LOX and COX enzyme assays, whereas those of B. officinalis flowers, B. yunanesis stems, and B. asiatica stems showed inhibitory activities only against COX. The phytochemical investigation of these extracts, and consequent structure elucidation of isolated compounds using spectroscopic data, led to the isolation from B. globosa of three new terpenoid compounds named dihydrobuddledin A, buddledone A, and buddledone B and four known compounds-buddledins A, B, and C and zerumbone; 12 known compounds from B. officinalis-calceolarioside, campneoside, verbascoside, echinacoside, forsythoside B, angoroside A, crocetin monogentibiosyl ester, acacetin, acacetin-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, acacetin-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-6)[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside, songarosaponin A, delta-amyrone; and eight known compounds fromB. yunanesis-11,14-dihydroxy-8,11, 13-abietatrien-7-one, beta-sitosterol, verbascoside, echinacoside, forsythoside B, angoroside A, methylcatapol, and sucrose. Tests on the isolated compounds for inhibition of eicosanoid synthesis showed that buddledin A, crocetin monogentibiosyl ester, and acacetin exhibited an inhibitory effect on COX with IC(50) values of 13.7 microM, 28.2 microM, and 77.5 microM, respectively, whereas buddledin A exhibited inhibitory effect on 5-LOX with an IC(50) value of 50.4 microM.

Matsuda H., H. Cai, M. Kubo, H. Tosa and M. Iinuma.  1995. Study on anti-cataract drugs from natural sources. II. Effects of buddlejae flos on in vitro aldose reductase activity.
Biol. Pharm. Bull. 18(3): 463466.
The inhibitory effects of nine crude drugs were tested on unpurified rat lens aldose reductase, an enzyme involved in the complications of diabetes. Among the crude drugs, a 70% methanolic extract of Buddlejae Flos (flower of Buddleja officinalis) exhibited the highest inhibition. Luteolin, luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin and acacetin-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(6-1)-beta-D-glucopyranoside isolated from Buddlejae Flos showed the inhibitory activity, the IC50 (concentration of 50% inhibitory percentage) values of which were 0.21, 0.28, 0.58 and 0.75 microM, respectively. It is suggested that the inhibitory effect of Buddlejae Flos on aldose reductase is partially attributable to these flavonols or their glycosides.

Mensah A. Y., P. J. Houghton, S. Bloomfield, A. Vlietinck, D. Vanden Berghe. 2000. Known and novel terpenes from Buddleja globosa displaying selective antifungal activity against dermatophytes.  J. Nat. Prod. 63(9): 12101213.  Lipophilic extracts of the stembark of Buddleja globosa were found to have antifungal activity at 125 microg/mL against three dermatophytic fungal species but had no activity at 1000 microg/mL against four other fungal species or two yeast species. Bioassay-guided fractionation of Si gel column eluates using the sensitive fungal species resulted in active fractions from which were isolated five compounds that were characterized by spectroscopic methods as one novel and four known compounds. The known compounds were the diterpene buddlejone (1), the bisditerpene maytenone, and the two sesquiterpenes buddledin A and buddledin B, while the novel compound was characterized as the diterpene deoxybuddlejone (2). The minimum inhibitory concentration of all the compounds was determined against all the microorganisms under test, and buddledins A and B were shown to exhibit the greatest antifungal activity, with values of 43 microM and 51 microM, respectively, against the sensitive fungi Trichophyton rubrum, Tricophyton interdigitale, and Epidermophyton floccosum.

Pardo F, F. Perich, L. Villarroel and R. Torres.  1993.  Isolation of verbascoside, an antimicrobial constituent of Buddleja globosa leaves.  J. Ethnopharmacol. 39(3): 221222.

Yamamoto A., S. Nitta, T. Miyase, A. Ueno and L. J. Wu.  1993. Phenylethanoid and lignan-iridoid complex glycosides from roots of Buddleja davidii.  Phytochemistry 32(2): 421425.