©The World Botanical Associates Web Page
Prepared by Richard W. Spjut
Feb 2008, June 2014. Jan 2015

Chenopodium californicum

Kern Co., Bitter Creek Reserve,
CA,  20 Mar 2010


Chenopodium macrospermum

Kern River, Kern Co., Bakersfield
CA, Rancho Rio Stables, 27 May 2006


Chenopodium murale

Imperial Co., CA, just west of Calexico
Spjut 16189, Feb 2008

Patrício F.J., G. C. Costa, P. V. Pereira, W. C. Aragão-Filho, S. M. Sousa, J. B. Frazão, W. S. Pereira, M. C. Maciel, L. A. Silva, F. M. Amaral, J,. M. Rebêlo, R. N. Guerra, M. N. Ribeiro and F. R. Nascimento. 2008.  Efficacy of the intralesional treatment with Chenopodium ambrosioides in the murine infection by Leishmania amazonensis.  J. Ethnopharmacol. 115(2): 313–319.  Leishmaniasis, caused by protozoan from Leishmania genus, is an endemic disease in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The chemotherapy to this disease is not always effective and can cause several side effects. Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Chenopodiaceae) is used by the native people in the treatment of cutaneous ulcers caused by different species of Leishmania. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the treatment with a hydroalcoholic crude extract (HCE) from the leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides on the murine infection with Leishmania amazonensis. The mice were treated for 4-6 weeks post-infection (p.i.) with HCE (5mg/kg) or meglumine antimoniate (Sb(v)) (28mg/kg) either by the oral route, once a day, for 15 days or by five intralesional (IL) injections at intervals of 4 days. The thickness of the infected paws was determined weekly and the parasite load evaluated in the draining lymph nodes (LN), the spleen and in the footpad after 7 weeks of infection. The nitric oxide (NO) production was evaluated in cultures with cells from peritoneum or LN.  The IL treatment increased the NO production in the LN and peritoneum cultures and reduced the parasite load from the footpad, spleen and LN. On the other hand, the oral treatment decreased did alter neither the NO production nor the parasite load.  IL HCE treatment was more efficient than the oral HCE treatment since the former was able to control the dissemination of infection. This effect can be due to either a direct leishmanicidal effect of HCE or the improvement in the NO production by HCE-stimulated macrophages. The results could justify the topical use of the Chenopodium ambrosioides' leaves in the treatment of the ulcers caused by Leishmania.