©The World Botanical Associates Web Page
Prepared by Richard W. Spjut, July 1999
Last Revised, May 2000; July 2007
, March 2010


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  7. __________. 1923. The cultivated evergreens. MacMillan Co., New York.


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  26. Eliot, W. A. 1938. Forest trees of the Pacific Coast. Putnam, NY.


  27. El-Kassaby, Y. A. and A. D. Yanchuk. 1994. Genetic diversity, differentiation, and inbreeding in Pacific yew from British Columbia. J. Heredity 85: 112-117.

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  31. Ferguson, D. K. 1978. Some current research on fossil and recent taxads. Rev. Paleobot. Palynol. 26: 213-226.


  32. Florin, R. 1963. The distribution of conifer and taxad genera in time and space. Acta Horti Berg. 20: 121-312.


  33. __________. 1958. On Jurassic taxads and conifers from north-western Europe and eastern Greenland. Acta Horti Berg. 17.

  34. __________. 1951. Evolution in Cordaites and conifers. Acta Horti Berg. 15: 285-388, plate.


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  36. __________. 1948b. On Nothotaxus, a new genus of the Taxaceae, from eastern China. Acta Horti Bergeane 14: 385—395, plates 1-3.


  37. __________. 1948c.Nothotaxus or Pseudotaxus? Botaniska Notiser 1948: 270-272.


  38. __________. 1931. Untersuchungen zur Stammesgeschichte der Coniferales und Cordaitales. Kungl Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar 10: 45-588.

  39. Fady, B., M. Arbez and A. Marpeau. 1992. Geographic variablility of terpene composition in Abies cephalonica Loudon and Abies species around the Aegean: hypothese for their possible phylogeny from the Miocene. Trees: 6:162-171.

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  41. Frederiksen, N. O. 1995. Differing Eocene floral histories in southeastern North America and western Europe: Influence of paleogeography. Hist. Biol. 10: 13-23.


  42. __________. 1994. Paleocene flora diversities and turnover events in eastern North America and their relation to diversity models. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 82: 226-238.


  43. Frimmel, F. von. 1911. Die untere Kutikula des Taxus-Blattes--ein Lichtreflektor. Österr. Bot. Zeit. 61: 216-223.
  44. Goodman, J. and V. Walsh.  2001. The story of taxol.  Nature and politics inthe pursuit of an anti-cancer drug. Cambridge University Press.


  45. Graham, A. 1999. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic history of North American vegetation north of Mexico. Oxford Univ. Press, New York.


  46. __________. 1973. History of the arborescent temperate element in the northern Latin American Biota. Pp. 301-314 in Vegetation and vegetational history of northern Latin America, ed. A. Graham. Elsevier Scientific Publ. Co., Amsterdam.

  47. Givulescu, R. 1973. Die fossil Koniferen des Fundortes Chiuzbaia F. Institut Geologique Memoires 19: 31-34.
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  49. Hatfield, T. D. 1921. Study of relative hardiness of European and Asiatic types. The Garden Magazine 33: 23-26.


  50. Hartwell, J. L. 1976. Types of anticancer agents isolated from plants. Cancer Treatment Reports 60(8): 1031-1067.

  51. Hill, K. D. 1998. Gymnosperms’—The paraphyletic stem of seed plants. Flora of Australia 48: 505-526.


  52. Hils, M. 1993. Taxaceae Gray. Yew family. Flora of North America 2: 423-427.

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  55. Hu, S-Y. 1964. [Notes on] the Flora of China. Taiwania: 13-62.

  56. Humphries, C. J. 1982. Vacariance biogeography in Mesoamerica. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 69: 444-463.

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  58. Jarvis, C. E., F. R. Barrie, D. M. Allan and J. L. Reveal. 1993. A list of Linnaean generic names and their types. Regnum Veg. 127.


  59. Keen, R. A. History and development of Taxus in the U.S. 1975. Proceedings International Taxus Symposium, Ohio Agric. Res. Hort. Ser. 421: 2-5.

  60. Kingston, D.G.I. 1996. Improving on nature. Taxane J. 2: 20-27.

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  62. __________., G. Samaranayake and C. A. Ivey. 1990. The chemistry of taxol, a clinically useful anticancer agent. J. Nat. Prod. 53: 1-12.
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  66. Krüssmann, G. 1972, 1985. Manual of cultivated conifers. Translated by M. E. Epp, eds. H.-D. Warda & G. S. Daniels. Timber Press, Portland (1985).


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  68. Laubenfels, D. J., de.  1988. Coniferales. Flora Malesiana 10(3): 337-453. 


  69. Leighton, W. A. 1841.  A flora of Shropshire. E. P. Publishling Ltd (reprint 1978).


  70. Loudon, J. C. 1844. Arboretum et fruticetum Britannicum. Longman, Brown, Green & Longmans, London (2nd ed., "almost identical with original" reportedly published 1838, Stafleu & Cowan 1981).

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  72. Manchester, S. R. 1994. Fruits and seeds of the Middle Eocene Nut Beds Flora, Clarno Formation, Oregon. Palaeontographica Americana 58: 1-205.


  73. __________. 1999. Biogeographical relationships of North American Tertiary Floras. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 86: 472-522.

  74. McKenna, M. C. 1983. Holarctic landmass rearrangement, cosmic events, and Cenozoic terrestrial organisms. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 70: 459-489.

  75. McIver, E. E. 1992. Fossil Fokienia (Cupressaceae) from the Paleocene of Alberta, Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 70: 742-749.


  76. __________. and J. F. Basinger 1990. Fossil seed cones of Fokienia (Cupressaceae) from the Paleocene Ragenscrag Formation of Saskatchewan, Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 1609-1618.


  77. __________ and __________. 1989. The morphology and relationships of Thuja polaris sp. nov. (Cupressaceae) from the early Tertiary, Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada.  Cand. J. Bot. 67: 1903-1915.

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  88. Price, R. A. 1990. The genera of Taxaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arn. Arb. 71: 69-71.


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  94. __________. 1923. New species, varieties and combinations from the herbarium and the collections of the Arnold Arboretum. Taxus media hybr. nov., Taxus media f. hatfieldii forma nov., Taxus media f. hicksii, comb. nov. J. Arn. Arb. 4: 107-109.

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  97. Rowinsky, E. K., L. A. Cazenave, and R. C. Donehower. 1990. Taxol: a novel investigational antimicrotubule agent. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 82: 1247-1259.


  98. Rozendaal, van E. L. M., S. J. L. Kurstjens, T. A. van Beek, R. G. van den Berg. 1999. Chemotaxonomy of Taxus. Phytochemistry 52: 427-433.


  99. Schopf, J. M. 1981. Evidence from findings of molecular biology with regard to the rapidity of genomic change: implications for species durations. Pp. 135-192 in K. J. Niklas, ed., Paleobotany, paleoecology, and evolution, Praeger Publishers, NY.


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  102. Silba, J. 1984. An international census of the Coniferae, I. Phytologia Mem. 7: 1-79.
  103. Spjut, R. W. 2010.  A revised taxonomic key to species and varieties of Taxus (Taxaceae). Submitted for Poster. III International Workshop,  Ponferrada, León, Spain, Mar 25-26,
    Note: This is nearly the same poster presented in 2000 except  for updated nomenclatural changes in  the Baccata Group, updated geographical distribution data for some species and varieties, and improved images for two figures   Printed copies were sent in 2007, along with reprints of the 2007 papers, to institutions who provided loans. The files were submitted electronically in pdf format.

  104. Spjut, R. W. 2007. Taxonomy and Nomenclature of Taxus (Taxaceae). J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1(1): 203–289.


  105. Spjut, R. W. 2007. A phytogeographical analysis of Taxus (Taxaceae) based on leaf anatomical characters. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas: 1(1): 291–332.


  106. Spjut, R. W. 2006. Biogeographical data on putative hybrids for species of Taxus (Taxaceae) in the Himalayas and North America. Abstract, Botanical Society of America, Chico State CA, July 29–Aug 2.


  107. Spjut, R. W. 2000. Three abstracts submitted online for the upcoming meeting of the Amercian Systematic Plant Taxonomist being held at Portland, OR, August.

    (1) A phytogeographical analysis and classification of leaf morphological features in 

        Taxus (Taxaceae).

    (2) The morphological relationships of Taxus canadensis (Taxaceae) in North America

         and Eurasia.

    (3) A revised taxonomic key to species and varieties of Taxus (Poster). (See also Spjut 2010).


  108. __________. Morphological evolution in the Taxus leaf and its significance to recognizing ecological species within the genus. Presented at the AIBS Annual Meeting, American Systematic Plant Taxonomists, Baltimore Convention Center, MD, Aug. 5, 1998, Abstract, Botanical Society of America. Also, Species of Taxus (URL:


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  111. __________. 1993. Abstract. Reliable Morphological Characters for Distinguishing Species of Taxus. Paper presented at the International Yew Resources Conference, Berkeley, CA, Mar 12-13, 1993.


  112. __________. 1992. Abstract. A taxonomic key to the species of Taxus. Workshop on Taxus, Rockville, MD.


  113. __________. Limitations of a random screen: Search for new anticancer drugs in higher plants. Economic Botany: 39(3): 266-288.


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  115. _________, J-Y. Zhou & C-J. Chang. 1993. Comparison of taxane content between two different native yews from the Pacific northwest. Poster/Abstract, Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting of American Society of Pharmacognosy, San Diego, CA, Jul.


  116. __________., D. G. I. Kingston and J. M. Cassady. 1992. Systematic Screening of Bryophytes for Antitumor Agents. Tropical Bryology 6: 193-202.


  117. _________, J. M. Cassady, T. McCloud, D.H. Norris, M. Suffness, G.M. Cragg, and C.F. Edson. 1988. Variation in cytotoxicity and antitumor activity among samples of a moss, Claopodium crispifolium (Hook.) Ren. & Card. (Thuidiaceae). Econ. Bot. 42(1): 62-72.


  118. __________, R. W., M. Suffness, G. M. Cragg, and D. H. Norris. 1986. Mosses, liverworts and hornworts screened for antitumor agents. Econ. Bot. 40: 310-338.


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  120. Strauss, S. H., A. H. Doerksen, and J. R. Byrne. 1989. Evolutionary relationships of Douglas-fir and its relatives (genus Pseudotsuga) from DNA restriction fragment analysis. Can. J. Bot. 68: 1502-1510.


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  124. __________ and S. Taylor. 1980. Taxus brevifolia in British Columbia. Davidsonia 12: 89-94.


  125. ___________ 1985b. The Eocene North Atlantic Land Bridge: Its importance in Tertiary and modern phytogeography of the northern hemisphere. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 66: 243-273.


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  127. Tsumura, Y., K. Yoshimura, N. Tomaru, and K. Ohba. 1995. Molecular phylogeny of conifers using RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified specific chloroplast genes. Theoretical Applied Genetics 91: 1222-1236.

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  131. Wani, M.C., H. L. Taylor, M. E. Wall, M. E. P. Coggon, & A. T. McPhail. 1971. Plant antitumor agents. VI. The isolation and structure of taxol, a novel antileukemic and antitumor agent from Taxus brevifolia. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 93: 2325-2327.


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